3 UAE universities research eveals that investors value integrity over ideas

Edarabia

3 uae universities research reveals that investors value entepr integrity over ideas 3 UAE universities research eveals that investors value integrity over ideasDubai, UAE: A study by a team of researchers from three UAE universities has revealed that entrepreneurs who display integrity, willpower, commitment and passion are more likely to gain funding from private investors than those who have just a sound business plan.

The research conducted by Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan (University Of Wollongong in Dubai), Ian Michael ( Zayed University ) and Ionica Murtaza (Emirates Aviation University) found that 99 per cent of investors view integrity as either extremely important or very important when it came to selecting which companies or entrepreneurs to back financially.

Over 94 per cent saw willpower or commitment to the business as an important factor, with 93 per cent agreeing that passion for an idea also held sway. Investors also valued the strength of a business? team and their willingness to learn. Interestingly, just 54 per cent of investors deemed a company?s existing relationships to be…

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Common Core Corruption

Dr. King said, “The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically.  Intelligence plus character — that is the goal of true education.”  But that is not what is going on in public schools these days.  And the implementation of the so-called “Common Core” has been the single greatest setback for our children’s educational attainments since the creation of the Federal Department of Education in 1979.

“Common Core” seeks to establish consistent educational standards across the states, as well as ensure that students graduating from high school are prepared to enter credit-bearing courses at two- or four-year college programs or to enter the workforce.  And it very well indeed may have originated with good intentions.  But as Dr. King taught, “Nothing in all the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.”

Conceived as a means to provide a consistent, clear understanding…

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Think from the Right Side of the Life!

Upgrade 4 values

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It’s not what we can do in the Life that makes a difference, it’s what we will do.

Understanding the Life’s principles and how each principle affects us is the foundational strategy for this program to become successful. When it comes to becoming successful, those who are able to create and maintain life better are found on the Right Side of the thinking. They are the people, men and women from every walk of life. They are those who think differently than those on the Wrong Side of life—the skeptics and self-righteous. Regardless of which position you are presently in, becoming successful begins—and ends—with a commitment to take the necessary steps to move and stay on the Right Side of the Life.

To continue go to page 10 x 10 = 100 % Possible

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How School Management Software Is Helping the Educational Industry?

Educational Tech Tips

Everyone likes change especially when there’s a lot of competition in the market. Busy parents, hardworking teachers and enthusiastic students all require a certain level of assistance and the online school management software is there to do that.  It has not just become a great communication hub, but has also cut down most of the manual labor in many schools and colleges both in and outside the national boundaries of Pakistan.

school management software

 

What Major Changes Can A School Experience After Installing Online School Management System

 

  • Fast and easy accessibility of various records and documents via smartphone app
  • Teachers don’t have to look for student’s attendance records from heavy stacks of paper as all that can be accessed from the computer
  • 0% chances of errors and misleading accounting transactions as the computer is keeping track of everything
  • Constantly growing enrollments can easily be managed in the fastest and the most…

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Electioneering and Political Scheming in Nigeria: Lessons Never Learnt

The interconnectedness between politics and the economy has been a major area in the context of nation building. Dating back to History, the nature and legacies inherited from the former colonial masters, and to an extent still is, a major factor for the endemic problems of instability, especially the elusive quest for national integration in the emergent African nation-states after independence. During the colonial period, especially on the eve of the exit of the colonialists, nationalist leaders and their followers had an illusion of political independence being the solution to most of the problems confronting states. In the Gold Coast (modern day Ghana), the search for political freedom was epitomized in Dr Kwame Nkrumah’s philosophy:

“seek ye first the political kingdom, and all else

shall be added unto you”.

The above are indicative of the popular illusion among Africans about self-government. it was believed that with the attainment of independence and the control of African destiny in their own hands, it would be easier to promote national integration, economic development, social justice and the like. Beyond that, it was hoped that greater continental unity would be achieved and neo-colonialism effectively combated.

The case of Nigeria was not different either, however what dominated post independence was ethnic based politics, “politiking” and “politricks”. It was and is still valid to say that political parties far less national in outlook. The second Republic leaders also failed to heed to the warning of Chief Obasanjo, despite warnings of the importance of being nationalistic both in objective and practice.Ethnic politics has led to divisions, severe internal wranglings and widespread discontent among Nigeria’s various ethnic groups. This has also been further exacerbated by the emergence of ethnic militia groups either vying for political positions or special privileges which is not in the interest of the overall public.

There is therefore, no gainsaying the fact that political instability in Nigeria has immensely hampered economic development and national transformation. One reason for the consistent political instability and heated polity is lack of focus on  long term goals for national development. A vehicle without direction cannot get to the proper destination. Likewise it is important to determine the capability, proficiency and quality of the driver of the vehicle. for example a car driver cannot fly an aircraft except he or she is trained to do so. What Nigeria needs now is genuine leadership more focused on both short and long term issues of national interest. Elections will go and come and key issues will persist, except they are been addressed.

This takes us to the next segment which are the key issues:

1. Political parties, civil society groups, the media and other international partners should form a synergy against the forces that threaten national security in Nigeria, Africa and the wider world. Although, it is the primary responsibility of government to protect its citizens from external aggression, however, as it seems the Nigerian government does not have all the resources (most importantly intelligence and tracking down) to deal effectively with insecurity in the North East. This is why it is not sufficient alone to designate a group as terrorist, but more importantly to pool resources together to fight the surge. In a situation where sentiment prejudices, biases and parochialism begins to hold sway in national security matters, then there is bound to be gridlock in collective decision.

2. Infrastructure is key to economic breakthrough. The Nigerian economy cannot be revitalized without the provision of critical infrastructure such as power, road, rail etc. No other nation imports and fuels generators the way Nigerians do. Even the current reduction of fuel prices does not give an inch of relieve to the problem of petroleum and power. The refineries are not in good condition, even those that are available are been run either by exploitative multinational companies or the oppressive members of the elite. Poor discourages foreign investors coupled with the uncontroversial fact that cost of production will certainly increase with poor power supply. Government with the private sector should draw a road map for the power industry, regulate and monitor the storage and supply of power. They should look at how much power is needed in the country hand in hand with the consumption rate. i also advocate that alternative means of power supply should be explored such as solar, coal and mines.

3. Economic growth is a means not an end in itself. The focus on government should be on human development. Human capital is an inestimable driving component of national economic development and transformation. Some of the reasons why the economy has not moved considerably in terms of stability is because human and natural resources have not been sufficiently explored. That is why though Nigeria boasts of the highest GDP in Africa, unemployment persists. The solution to this is for government to increase its investment in human resources with the partnership of the private sector. Mass Adult literacy, vocational and technical training as well as robust programme to revitalize the educational sector will prove to be effective antidotes to reduce poverty. Government should establish a special National Human Development programme at the grassroots level which will remain inconsequential of whatever government is in power. This will provide wider access to formal and informal education, which will empower the masses irrespective of academic qualification, sex or ethnicity.

4. Politicking and politricking are divisive methods used by politicians to fool the electorate. If a leader fails to stick to his manifesto then he is not fit for national duty. Nigerian politicians come to election day with mouthwatering promises but never fail to deliver, this is because the desire to rule overrides the responsibility and drive to lead. The “do not sell your votes” or “your PVC is your power” are not as key as the mental/psychological transformation of our national leaders. A leader must be transformed before it can positively impact those he is serving. although servant leadership seems to be absent in some circles of political leadership in Nigeria, it will be wrong to generalize that it is generally absent. The crux of the matter is that leadership is not to lord over others, it is leading others to become better people through self actualization.

My advice to political leaders vying from various positions is, remain humble, focused and tenacious about the national project. Fifty-four (54) years of politiking and politricking must stop. to my fellow citizens, Let us imbibe the virtues of selfless service to our nation Nigeria, which is the only country that we have.  We do not have to be in position of political office to change things. Leadership is not determined by position but by character. To make Nigeria better, we must all be change agents. Through non-violent measures, we should voice our disaffection on how public resources are been handled. We must go about our lawful duties, carrying out our civic duties as expected of us. We must be law-abiding to show that we truly respect the constitution of the Federal Republic which we have all agreed to be binding on us as one truly indivisible nation.

Excerpts from the 1st Prof J.A Atanda Mmemorial Lecture Series No.1, The 1914 Amailgamation and the Challenges of National Integration in Post-Colonial Nigeria by S. Ademola Ajayi, PhD. Delivered at Jugor Centre, Ring Road, Ibadan. Saturday April 27, 2013.

All other views are independent thoughts and personal opinion

Ifeoluwa Falola

Economic Historian, Public Policy Analyst and Campaigner for Good Governance

Email: ololadefalola58@gmail.com, official twitter account: falson08, facebook: Ifeoluwa Falola BBM: 757F2CBC

Nigeria in 2015: Key issues for Progressive National Development

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As Nigerians prepare to go to the polls in 2015, the electorate will have key aspirations and expectations in mind; top of which is security, economic prosperity and progression in all fonts of national endeavour. The fact that Nigerians seek for government’s intervention in the aforementioned issues is an understatement. The protection of the territorial integrity or the national space which ultimately guarantees the protection of life and property is a major area which Nigerians will demand improvement from government. The last five years has witnessed widespread insurgency/terrorist activities in the North particularly the North eastern states of Borno, Adamawa and Yobe, undermining the political stability in those regions and also distorting economic and social activities. From the same token, it is well said that the Unity of Nigeria more than ever before, has come under intense pressure. Nigerians recognize that for the country to progress and overcome its present challenges it must be united in all fronts. The tendencies of disunity and discord must be eschewed. Let me reiterate that this is the major way by which national goals can be achieved.

The dynamics of the coming year lies not only in the electioneering process but also in the calibre, and quality of the candidates vying for various political offices. It is of utmost importance that Nigeria gets it right at the polls. This is because what is needed at this point is ‘Progressive Leadership’ founded on patriotism and inclusiveness. This can be best achieved if political parties are truly democratic in nature and practice. Nigeria does not need “power mongers” as leaders. Rather what is most important at this point in time are transformational and progressive leaders.

Going back to memory lane, the First and Second Republics in the political history of Nigeria witnessed the prominence of ethnic politics and pervasive politiking which was largely detrimental to national cohesion and development. Taking a clue from historical events, political parties in 2015 must provide issue based campaign and clear manifesto, as well as genuine indication that their proposed policies and programmes will be to further national transformation and economic development as well as provide answers to key vague issues that confront the people. Political parties must also provide clear proof of its capability to translate this programs into concrete action if given the people’s mandate. Thus, the clear point here is that we must not turn back the ticking clock of underdevelopment and pervasive politics.

The Above forms key issues that should be properly addressed:

  • Government is the machinery set in place to serve the state. Security is the most paramount issue. All and sundry must come together to protect the territorial integrity of Nigeria. Politicians and citizens alike most desist from fueling the embers of disunity and embrace collective desire to protect the national interest above anything else.
  • In the aspect of policy making and implementation, proposed government policies should be evaluated by reasonable and serious minded non partisan groups and bodies such as think thanks, civil society  and other stakeholders to  make policies more people based. This will enhance the quality of the policy making process and also help in speedy implementation.
  • Investment in non-oil sectors in order to boost internally generated revenue: Although Nigeria boasts of high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as rich Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), unemployment and poverty is clearly a serious consistent problem. Government’s investment in non-oil sectors will resuscitate our manufacturing sector, agricultural sector, mines, shipping, tourism etc and provide job opportunities.
  • Investment and re-investment in human development constitutes a major factor in sustainable economic development. The Nigerian government in partnership with the private sector can fund Small Scale Enterprises (SMEs). Although this is a work in progress, the terms of agreement and standard of conduct should not be decreased or diminished by government and organized private sector.The recent Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Bank of Industry and 10 Commercial banks in Nigeria to fund SMEs is a step in the right direction to boost the economy of the nation by investing in local small scale businesses.
  • Accountability in government institutions, agencies, ministries and parastatals is also a very cogent issue. Moving forward the best management practices will be largely dependent on horizontal accountability within government agencies at the federal, state and local levels. This will enhance professionalism in the civil service and curb corruption and ill practices which are detrimental to progressive governance.

Finally, Development comes with sacrifice, the exhibition of servant leadership and good followership will enhance a cohesion for sustainable national development. Political and economic stability, consistency and continuity in the furtherance of national objectives will lead to sustained growth and development. I advocate for collective responsibility towards national development. Many countries of the world  achieved unprecedented goals with a collaborative effort. Every Nigerian is a stakeholder, producer, consumer and beneficiary of national resources. Let us collectively make Nigeria GREAT AND PROSPEROUS.

Political Leadership in Africa: What Lies For the Future

INTRODUCTION
Africa has experienced various types and systems of government which one can term as not o productive in style, pattern and model of governance. While it is a known fact that the military system of government was draconian and counter-productive, the so called “civilian” dispensation has also not fared any better. This has been largely due to a number of factors which this work will look into.
The mode of governance in Africa has come under serious scrutiny from the International community in the last two to three decades for its insensitivity to the plights of its people as well as the growing or increased poverty ravaging the continent. While it is important to have a viable mode of governance that will guarantee the transformation of African nations from third world to developed nations, it is obvious that good political leadership is lacking. When there is no shepherd to lead the sheep, the sheep go astray. What is lacking in Africa is “BAD LEADERSHIP AND ALSO BAD FOLLOWER-SHIP”.

Democracy: Paper Work and Practice In African Context
The concept of democracy from its proper context includes servant leadership and the freedom of the electorate to demand accountability from the leaders when they are found wanting in accordance with due process and in line with the constitution. democracy thus is not limited to freedom of rights, free and fair election. Indeed the concept of democracy is hinged on two critical concepts of Transparency and Accountability. Many African leaders are not accountable and transparent in the discharge of their duties and responsibilities. what they are more concerned about is self interest and using the resources of the nation to enrich a few of its political caucus and party chieftains.

Democracy also entails inclusiveness in political participation. one party system is detrimental to the actualization, practice and entrenchment of democracy in Africa, the likes of Mubutu Sese Seko comes to mind. The one party system has proved on countless instances to be counter- productive. it is too direct, irrational, draconian and does not give room for the devolution or separation of powers. And has given rise to the half-hazard practice of federalism. the one party system also encourages dominance of just a party and it also includes the practice of ethnic politics. What this does is segregate and marginalize other ethnic groups that form the rest of the whole nation from expressing their fundamental right to vote and participate in political activities.

Corruption has eaten deep into the polity. Political office holders continue to abuse the seat of governance by plundering on the wealth of the nation. Mismanagement of funds has accounted for continuous deterioration in infrastructure, quality of life, quality of health etc. One should ask the reason why Africa has a high number of corrupt and undemocratic leaders. It is because the moral values of honesty and humility has faded away. What is prevalent are leaders who do not feel indebted to their followers. While corruption is a global issue and not peculiar to Africa, it is however unfortunate that poor governance a regular trend in Sub-Saharan Africa. A 2002 African Union study estimates that corruption cost the continent a roughly $150 billion a year. The prevalent corruption also warps the political process. Experts say many public officials in Africa seek re-election because holding offices gives them access to the state’s coffers, as well as immunity from prosecution. When the stakes for remaining in office are so high, candidates are more likely to buy votes or rig an election.

Weak Public Opinion
It is the duty of the masses to demand for purposeful leadership that is capable of meeting their needs. the researcher is of the view that a number of citizens are ignorant of political issues and happenings in their environment. An enlightened public would best have its interest considered before any other thing is giving preference. This is why public opinion is not respected or put into consideration by policy makers. And this has resulted in the lopsided outcomes of decisions and executions of public policy. Citizens have to raise their voices against bad leadership not only because it is their right but also for the betterment of the future generations.

The following are the options for African governments in order to ensure good governance and serve as anti-corruption measures:

Creating Non-Partisan anti-corruption Agencies
According to a 2005 survey by the the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa only two countries; Namibia and Malawi has watch dog groups that were deemed effective by experts. in all but a few cases, experts said these groups were not independent form the executive branch. but in some countries including Nigeria, they have had some measures of success. Under Nuhu Ribadu, Nigeria’s Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) recovered $5 billion in stolen public funds and secured 250 convictions. in addition it helped pass laws that mandated competitive bidding on government contracts and public audits of the oil revenues sent to state governments.

Strengthening existing Institutions
Institutional weaknesses facilitate corruption, particularly imbalances between a strong executive branch and weak legislature and judiciary, experts say. “rather than dreaming up short cuts, donors should be pouring their money into the boring old institutions African regimes have deliberately starved of funds over the years; the police force, the judicial system and civil service “, writes Journalist Wrong. Economist Collier recommends that government ministries overhaul their methods of disbursing funds . In his book Wars, Arms, and Votes , he suggests separating policy making, allocation of money to specific development activities whether health services, road building or schooling, and the supply of such activities. ministries should be responsible for overall policy only, and a “linking agency” should disburse money on the government’s behalf to appropriate suppliers, whether NGOs, churches, or philanthropists. collier and others also stress the importance of a strong and free press.

Reducing Dependency on Foreign Aid
A few economists, such as Dambisa Moyo, argue that African governments should cut-off foreign aid completely. By encouraging accountability to donors instead of citizens, foreign aid encourages graft and breaks the fundamental relationship between a state and its people, she argues. For instance the Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad and Sierra Leone, which are on Transparency International’s top ten corruption list, receive hundreds of millions of dollars in aid. Some say reducing non-humanitarian aid would force African governments to up tax revenues, increasing accountability at the local level.

RECOMMENDATIONS
African Governments must ensure free and fair elections and also institute legislation and policies that allow for open participation in politics. No one should be sidelined as a result of his/her ethnic background. Institution checks and balances should be effective in order to reduce corrupt practices at all levels of government. The anti-graft agencies should be non-partisan and allowed to operate independent of the executive arm of government.

The establishment of the African Peer Review Mechanism as a self monitoring initiative if well supported by African leaders would help identify the challenges and problems of African nations as well as recommending viable solutions to socio-economic and sustainable development hinged upon the principle of good governance. It is hoped that this initiative will bring about the needed results, which is effectiveness in governance and corresponding positive outcomes.

REFERENCES
Stephanie Hanson, Corruption In Sub-Saharan Africa, August 6, 2009, http://www.cfr.org/africa-sub-saharan/corruption-sub-saharan-africa/p19984

Itoro Akpan, Nigerian Political Leaders, February 23, 2012, http://www.nigeriaintel.com/2012/02/23/nigerian-political-leaders-a-culture-of-corruption-and-failed-promises/

THE NATIONAL QUESTION

Introduction

National Question is a phrase that appears simple but is heavily loaded with meanings. While some interpret it as a nebulous term being fancied by a vocal minority not privileged to be a part of the establishment, others insist it is the euphemism for critical issues surrounding the inability of Nigeria to rise from being a snoring elephant to a roaring lion in the league of developed nations of the world. For Professor Osisioma Nwolise there are two schools of thought, the objective and the subjective schools, when we talk of the definition of a nation. To the former, a nation is a group of people with a common language, religion, ancestry and common worldview. The latter sees the subject matter as a diverse conglomeration of people who, despite the diversity, see one another as members of the same group. In the past couple of decades, and more evidently since the dawn of independence in the 1960s Nigeria has been driven by numerous crises that have tended to exacerbate the fault-lines of the nature of union as a plural, multi-ethnic society in which diverse groups were violently yoked together by the erstwhile colonial overlords, the British, for their own administrative, and largely pecuniary, interest.

Hence many of the issues and concerns that have come to assume the status of the National Question and which are burning at the centre of national consciousness are traceable to the structural deficits and imbalances evolving from the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorates of Nigeria to form a unified colony by the colonial Governor-General, Lord Lugard in 1914. These imbalances have deepened and become more like a skewed ontology enabling certain groups within the emergent state to persistently thrive and incur benefits from what ought to be a national communion to the exclusion of others, even when these groups do not necessarily possess the material base to justify such privileged advantage.

While the state that was constructed and handed-down by the colonial powers to the people of Nigeria has been variously pointed out as being ‘artificial’ or ‘illegitimate’ in order, its manifestation in the post-independence period has emphasized an heightened state of intolerance, insecurity and strife, routinely assuming religious and ethnic expression, as actors within the different groups struggled to access the privileges of the State at the expense of others. Other notable opinions have equally added the dimension that the National Question essentially evinces a class character, attendant upon the desperate attempts by the colonial and post colonial power elites in Nigeria to distort and manipulate the structure of the State in the effort to perpetrate their own material advantages.
Yet, from its originating instance, the choice of the federal option as a platform for sharing power across the divergent national entities boded by the British was never an altruistic one, as unique political expediencies shaped the consensus of the 1954 constitutional process between the colonial state functionaries and the “nationalists” in agreeing to toe the line of a federal arrangement. Thus while the colonial operatives considered this as a system that would reassure their allies within the Northern oligarchy of continuity in progressing at their own pace, the Southerners, who were basically at the vortex of the anti-colonial struggle regarded federalism as a means of attaining sovereign independence.
From the forgoing, multiethnic power relations between ‘majority’ and ‘minority’ groups (whether constituted on the basis of population or the crude trapping of power) became a critical feature of what has consequently been articulated as the National Question, expressed in terms of disaffection with what is perceived as marginalization and exploitation within the Nigerian State. And, this Question has and continues to sponsor conflicts over identity, self determination and autonomy.

The Framework of the National Question
The issue of national question has gained much prominent in Nigeria as it is frequently referred to in discourses pertaining to the erosion of the state and its failure to meet the needs of citizens, which are posed in terms of exclusion, marginalization, and general injustice in securing and protecting the lives and welfare of the various groups inhabiting the national space. Some of the sub-categories of this Question include: to what extent do citizens and groups feel a sense of identity with the Nigerian State? Does the state protect their interest? Is justice and fairness preserved in the manner in which the state relates to every section of the citizenry? To what extent is justice dispensed in the extraction and distribution of the proceeds of resources extracted in certain territories of the State?

Regionalism and the National Question
A theoretical mode of validating regional political, social and economic expression as a vital attempt at solving the troubling National Question, or subset of questions, in Nigeria locates within the framework of federalism, which essentially offers a structure for diverse groups and constituencies to co-exist, realize their potentials and thrive as a plural society.
As a political theory of need, federalism is hinged upon the recognition of unevenness in the natural or ‘historical’ composition of social formations across the world, and it is a fairly given fact that most of the constituent units of a federation are incapable of being at par , wither in terms of resources or geography. A regional approach to the resolution of the National Question in Nigeria evolves from the consideration of a federal state as basically a work-in-progress, which is still seeking the best structural path to make its uniqueness enhance the welfare and empowerment of its diverse people. It is an approach to the federal project in the country from a federalizing rather than ethnic perspective, which promotes the coalition of a group of federating states that are culturally contiguous – historically, geographically and economically, and which are bound by shared mythologies and ancestors, to attain the vanguard of a cohesive sub-national unit re-invented for economic development and progress. It is about enacting shared objectives and cooperation for growth by a team of state actors on another federating level.

National Question and Agitation
Nigeria is replete with associations founded by ethnic nationalities dating back to the era of military rule. A lot of them were formed under the varying circumstances and at different times. While some sprang up professing to complement efforts at securing lives and property, a legion of them had the primary motive of guaranteeing the wellbeing in their immediate domains. Rather than diminish their ranks and number, the ethno-religious and cultural organizations multiplied in number gaining wide public acceptance, ostensibly among the people who felt the Nigerian system had failed the country and shortchanged their ethnic nationalities.
Beyond the official plan to ban ethnic militia groups was the intention to castrate other organizations that paraded some eminent politicians across the country. These groups included the pan-Yoruba organization Afenifere, that of the igbo Ohanaeze Ndigbo, and the Arewa Consultative Forum (ACF), because the authorities felt they were promoting regional activism and other tendencies at variance to national cohesion and integration. Some groups took a preemptive step by heading for court to stop the ban and the bill was eventually sent to the archives.

The list of other groupings that have joined in the battle to unravel the national question has since elongated. Some of them are the Chicoco Movement: Movement for Ijaw Ethnic Nationality (MOSIEN), Federated Niger Delta Ijaw Communities, Igbo National Congress, Yoruba Council of Elders Itshekiri National Patriots, Ibibio Elders Union etc.

FACTORS AFFECTING NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

Ethnic Mobilization in Nigerian Politics
Ethno-genesis which refers to how and why ethnic consciousness is mobilized is central to the study of Africa. In Nigeria, the class dimensions of ethnic mobilization in terms of how ethnicity is manipulated by the elite have been emphasized. But this does make ethnicity, as a political resource, the preserve of the elite. The other thing about ethnic mobilization is that it tends to be propelled by several other cleavage-based mobilizations, notably, in the case of Nigeria, religion and regionalism. This is why, as several studies have found out, ethnicity does not exist in a pure form.

Effect of Ethnic Politics and Ethnic Nationalism in Nigeria
Ethnic and inter-communal conflicts have become so pervasive that there is hardly does any month pass without some form of civil disturbances have become a defining characteristics of the return to civil rule. Since May 1999, it is now generally understood that Nigeria is grapping with a rising wave of ethnic bloodshed in which well over 2000 people have died since military rule ended in 1999. Another effect of ethnicity on the Nigerian polity is that it has heightened political competition in electoral contest. Most ethnic group insisted on winning elections by duress especially in their regions. No wonder, in the First Republic, Northern People’s Congress (NPC) had to return some candidates unopposed even before the elections were begun.

Ethnic nationalism has had a lot of negative consequences for the nation’s movement towards democratization to the extent that it remains an enduring threat to institutionalization of democracy in Nigeria. Among its resultant negative consequences as observed by Babangida (2002), are wastage of human and material resources in ethnically inspired violence, clashes and even battles, heightening of fragility of the economy and political process, threat to security of life and property and disinvestments of local and foreign components with continuous capital flighty and loss of confidence in the economy, and increasing gaps in social relations among ethnic nationalities including structural suspicious and hate for one another. Ethnic nationalism is equally responsible for uprising of ethnic militias across the country; the Odua People’s Congress of the South West, the Arewa People’s Congress and Egbesu in the East among others.
Solution

Whether we need a federal or confederal system, what is really lacking is transparency. The will to bring the people together is not there. The challenge facing Nigeria, therefore, is how to forge a system in which there is a real aggregation of the world views of all of the people, under the just and equitable condition. That is the fundament on which Nigeria prosperity can be built. Also important is that for a holistic notion of development to become the raison d’être of the Nigerian state, there is need for a fundamental reform of the faulty legal architecture of the country through a constitutional process that will deal with powers and how they are shared across the various levels of government. Crucial constitutional reform issues that will facilitate such state-of-being include the devolution of more powers to the states and lower authorities by the re-composition of the Exclusive, Concurrent and residual Legislative lists in the Nigerian constitution. States and local councils should be given the powers to legislate and act in basic areas that impact more on the lives of people, including education, health, water resources, etc. while the federal government can retain its powers on defense, currency policy, customs etc. the revenue formula should also reflect proper derivation to resource producing regions, while provisions should be made for a buffer fund that would assist less resources endowed areas in the spirit of federalism. There should also be a call for a sovereign national conference to air the views of the various ethnic groupings that make up the federation.

Conclusion and Recommendation
With the following structures put in place and policies implemented, Nigerian can attain proper development, an equitable and just society, where power is equally shared among all. Despite her diversity, the Nigerian people will see each other as belonging to a single larger and wider political grouping that is void of biases and ethnic prejudice in interaction with one another. This will help build a true feeling of national consciousness and a stronger bond of oneness and common heritage.

REFERENCES
http://ekitistate.gov.ng/2012/12/towards-the-resolution-of-the-national-question-in-Nigeria-a-regioal-response/ (Assessed 07/02/2014)
http://tribune.com.ng/news2013/index.php/en/politics/item/25542-the-national-question.html (Assessed 08/02/2014)
http://www.thenationonlineng.net/2011/index.php/editorial/7122-towards-may-29-the-national-question-1.html (Assessed 08/02/2014)
• Eghosa, E. Osaghe et al, Ethnic Groups And Conflicts in Nigeria, the Lords Creation, 2001,
http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/1165/1182 (assessed 23/02/14)
http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380017920_Salawu and Hassan.pdf (assessed 27/02/14)